Was Ist Nitrogen Wie funktionieren LEDs und wieso sind sie so sparsam?
Stickstoff, Inhaltsstoff für Lebensmittel Stickstoff ist ein farb-, geruch- und geschmackloses Gas, das mit 78,1 Vol. In der Lebensmittelindustrie wird Stickstoff, oft gemischt mit Kohlendioxid (E ), in die Verpackung geblasen, um dort den Sauerstoff zu verdrängen. Stickstoff: Was ist Stickstoff, und wofür wird er genutzt? Nitrogen Industrial Gases Basic Theory Compressed Air Wiki Compressed Air. Share via. Stickstoff (lateinisch Nitrogenium) ist ein chemisches Element mit der Ordnungszahl 7 und dem Juni ↑ Eintrag zu nitrogen bei WebElements, mijnwebadres.nl, abgerufen am Juni ↑ Eintrag zu Stickstoff in der. Alle Wassersprays enthalten Nitrogen, ein Treibgas, damit das Wasser aus der Dose kommt. Das Wasser aus der Balea-Dose riecht ganz. Nitrogen ◇ Ni | tro | g e n 〈 n.; -s ; unz. ; veraltet ; chem. Zeichen: N 〉 Stickstoff [ lat. ] ◇ Die Buchstabenfolge ni | tr.
Many translated example sentences containing "liquid nitrogen" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Nitrogen ◇ Ni | tro | g e n 〈 n.; -s ; unz. ; veraltet ; chem. Zeichen: N 〉 Stickstoff [ lat. ] ◇ Die Buchstabenfolge ni | tr. Stickstoff: Was ist Stickstoff, und wofür wird er genutzt? Nitrogen Industrial Gases Basic Theory Compressed Air Wiki Compressed Air. Share via.
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Was Ist Nitrogen InhaltsverzeichnisEos Spiel Ihr da ich brauche ein Wasser spray das von balea finde ich bei DM nicht. Zur Durchführung der Ringprobe wird die Probelösung schwefelsauer, schwermetallfrei mit Drachentanz China Eisen II -sulfat-Lösung versetzt und mit konzentrierter Schwefelsäure unterschichtet. Diese 2D-Schichten ähneln in ihren elektronischen Eigenschaften dem Graphenso dass das Material für viele technische Anwendungen interessant sein könnte. Stickstoff ist für das Leben auf der Erde unentbehrlich. Ich habe das Balea Wasserspray endlich im dm gefunden — stand aber auch so unscheinbar im Regal. Über dieses freie Elektronenpaar können sie als Nukleophile und als Basen reagieren. Wo bekomme ich ein Wasser spray? Januarabgerufen am
The term NH 3 -N removal is also commonly used in scientific publications as a short way to depict Ammonia in water, and not the measure of its quantity.
Ammonium is an ionized form of ammonia. The chemical structure for ammonia is NH 3. Ammonia is highly soluble in water.
Ammonia reacts with water H 2 O and forms the ionized form:. The reaction is reversible. The percentage of ammonia increases with increasing alkalinity of dissolved ammonium in water.
Ammonium ions are formed with increasing acidity of dissolved ammonia in water. Ammonia is toxic to fish and humans.
The toxicity is decreased with lower alkalinity and increases with higher alkalinity as ammonium is converted to ammonia. Molecular nitrogen is the gas form of nitrogen in the atmosphere.
The chemical structure for nitrogen gas is N 2. Ammoniums ions are nitrified and are converted by microorganisms into nitrate. Fish and humans are more tolerant of nitrate nitrogen than they are of ammonium nitrogen.
In well aerated water, most of the mineral nitrogen is in the form of nitrate. It has a short half-life of about 7. Atomic nitrogen, also known as active nitrogen, is highly reactive, being a triradical with three unpaired electrons.
Free nitrogen atoms easily react with most elements to form nitrides, and even when two free nitrogen atoms collide to produce an excited N 2 molecule, they may release so much energy on collision with even such stable molecules as carbon dioxide and water to cause homolytic fission into radicals such as CO and O or OH and H.
Atomic nitrogen is prepared by passing an electric discharge through nitrogen gas at 0. Given the great reactivity of atomic nitrogen, elemental nitrogen usually occurs as molecular N 2 , dinitrogen.
Triple bonds have short bond lengths in this case, There are some theoretical indications that other nitrogen oligomers and polymers may be possible.
If they could be synthesised, they may have potential applications as materials with a very high energy density, that could be used as powerful propellants or explosives.
The opposite is true for the heavier pnictogens, which prefer polyatomic allotropes. This structure is similar to that of diamond , and both have extremely strong covalent bonds , resulting in its nickname "nitrogen diamond".
Below It forms a significant dynamic surface coverage on Pluto  and outer moons of the Solar System such as Triton. It is very weak and flows in the form of glaciers and on Triton geysers of nitrogen gas come from the polar ice cap region.
In early , researchers at the university of Bayreuth found a new allotrope, the so-called 'black nitrogen'. It has a structure similar to black phosphorus , it is created in a diamond anvil at a pressure of GPa 1.
It is actually transparent and in the experiment it was heated by a strong laser. These complexes , in which a nitrogen molecule donates at least one lone pair of electrons to a central metal cation, illustrate how N 2 might bind to the metal s in nitrogenase and the catalyst for the Haber process : these processes involving dinitrogen activation are vitally important in biology and in the production of fertilisers.
Dinitrogen is able to coordinate to metals in five different ways. A few complexes feature multiple N 2 ligands and some feature N 2 bonded in multiple ways.
Today, dinitrogen complexes are known for almost all the transition metals , accounting for several hundred compounds.
They are normally prepared by three methods: . Nitrogen bonds to almost all the elements in the periodic table except the first three noble gases , helium , neon , and argon , and some of the very short-lived elements after bismuth , creating an immense variety of binary compounds with varying properties and applications.
Many stoichiometric phases are usually present for most elements e. They may be classified as "salt-like" mostly ionic , covalent, "diamond-like", and metallic or interstitial , although this classification has limitations generally stemming from the continuity of bonding types instead of the discrete and separate types that it implies.
They are normally prepared by directly reacting a metal with nitrogen or ammonia sometimes after heating , or by thermal decomposition of metal amides: .
Many variants on these processes are possible. Azides of the B-subgroup metals those in groups 11 through 16 are much less ionic, have more complicated structures, and detonate readily when shocked.
Many covalent binary nitrides are known. The essentially covalent silicon nitride Si 3 N 4 and germanium nitride Ge 3 N 4 are also known: silicon nitride in particular would make a promising ceramic if not for the difficulty of working with and sintering it.
In particular, the group 13 nitrides, most of which are promising semiconductors , are isoelectronic with graphite, diamond, and silicon carbide and have similar structures: their bonding changes from covalent to partially ionic to metallic as the group is descended.
In particular, since the B—N unit is isoelectronic to C—C, and carbon is essentially intermediate in size between boron and nitrogen, much of organic chemistry finds an echo in boron—nitrogen chemistry, such as in borazine "inorganic benzene ".
Nevertheless, the analogy is not exact due to the ease of nucleophilic attack at boron due to its deficiency in electrons, which is not possible in a wholly carbon-containing ring.
The largest category of nitrides are the interstitial nitrides of formulae MN, M 2 N, and M 4 N although variable composition is perfectly possible , where the small nitrogen atoms are positioned in the gaps in a metallic cubic or hexagonal close-packed lattice.
They have a metallic lustre and conduct electricity as do metals. They hydrolyse only very slowly to give ammonia or nitrogen.
Industrially, ammonia NH 3 is the most important compound of nitrogen and is prepared in larger amounts than any other compound, because it contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to food and fertilisers.
It is a colourless alkaline gas with a characteristic pungent smell. As a liquid, it is a very good solvent with a high heat of vaporisation enabling it to be used in vacuum flasks , that also has a low viscosity and electrical conductivity and high dielectric constant , and is less dense than water.
However, the hydrogen bonding in NH 3 is weaker than that in H 2 O due to the lower electronegativity of nitrogen compared to oxygen and the presence of only one lone pair in NH 3 rather than two in H 2 O.
It is a weak base in aqueous solution p K b 4. It thus undergoes self-dissociation, similar to water, to produce ammonium and amide. Ammonia burns in air or oxygen, though not readily, to produce nitrogen gas; it burns in fluorine with a greenish-yellow flame to give nitrogen trifluoride.
Reactions with the other nonmetals are very complex and tend to lead to a mixture of products. Ammonia reacts on heating with metals to give nitrides.
Many other binary nitrogen hydrides are known, but the most important are hydrazine N 2 H 4 and hydrogen azide HN 3.
Although it is not a nitrogen hydride, hydroxylamine NH 2 OH is similar in properties and structure to ammonia and hydrazine as well.
Hydrazine is a fuming, colourless liquid that smells similarly to ammonia. Its physical properties are very similar to those of water melting point 2.
Despite it being an endothermic compound, it is kinetically stable. It burns quickly and completely in air very exothermically to give nitrogen and water vapour.
It is a very useful and versatile reducing agent and is a weaker base than ammonia. Hydrazine is generally made by reaction of ammonia with alkaline sodium hypochlorite in the presence of gelatin or glue: .
Hydrogen azide HN 3 was first produced in by the oxidation of aqueous hydrazine by nitrous acid. It is very explosive and even dilute solutions can be dangerous.
It has a disagreeable and irritating smell and is a potentially lethal but not cumulative poison. It may be considered the conjugate acid of the azide anion, and is similarly analogous to the hydrohalic acids.
All four simple nitrogen trihalides are known. Five nitrogen fluorides are known. Nitrogen trifluoride NF 3 , first prepared in is a colourless and odourless gas that is thermodynamically stable, and most readily produced by the electrolysis of molten ammonium fluoride dissolved in anhydrous hydrogen fluoride.
Like carbon tetrafluoride , it is not at all reactive and is stable in water or dilute aqueous acids or alkalis. Only when heated does it act as a fluorinating agent, and it reacts with copper , arsenic, antimony, and bismuth on contact at high temperatures to give tetrafluorohydrazine N 2 F 4.
Fluorine azide FN 3 is very explosive and thermally unstable. Dinitrogen difluoride N 2 F 2 exists as thermally interconvertible cis and trans isomers, and was first found as a product of the thermal decomposition of FN 3.
Nitrogen trichloride NCl 3 is a dense, volatile, and explosive liquid whose physical properties are similar to those of carbon tetrachloride , although one difference is that NCl 3 is easily hydrolysed by water while CCl 4 is not.
It was first synthesised in by Pierre Louis Dulong , who lost three fingers and an eye to its explosive tendencies. As a dilute gas it is less dangerous and is thus used industrially to bleach and sterilise flour.
Nitrogen triiodide NI 3 is still more unstable and was only prepared in Its adduct with ammonia, which was known earlier, is very shock-sensitive: it can be set off by the touch of a feather, shifting air currents, or even alpha particles.
The first are very reactive gases that can be made by directly halogenating nitrous oxide. Nitrosyl fluoride NOF is colourless and a vigorous fluorinating agent.
Nitrosyl chloride NOCl behaves in much the same way and has often been used as an ionising solvent. Nitrosyl bromide NOBr is red.
The reactions of the nitryl halides are mostly similar: nitryl fluoride FNO 2 and nitryl chloride ClNO 2 are likewise reactive gases and vigorous halogenating agents.
One other possible oxide that has not yet been synthesised is oxatetrazole N 4 O , an aromatic ring. This is a redox reaction and thus nitric oxide and nitrogen are also produced as byproducts.
It is mostly used as a propellant and aerating agent for sprayed canned whipped cream , and was formerly commonly used as an anaesthetic.
Despite appearances, it cannot be considered to be the anhydride of hyponitrous acid H 2 N 2 O 2 because that acid is not produced by the dissolution of nitrous oxide in water.
Nitric oxide NO is the simplest stable molecule with an odd number of electrons. In mammals, including humans, it is an important cellular signaling molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes.
It reacts with oxygen to give brown nitrogen dioxide and with halogens to give nitrosyl halides. It also reacts with transition metal compounds to give nitrosyl complexes, most of which are deeply coloured.
Blue dinitrogen trioxide N 2 O 3 is only available as a solid because it rapidly dissociates above its melting point to give nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide NO 2 , and dinitrogen tetroxide N 2 O 4.
The latter two compounds are somewhat difficult to study individually because of the equilibrium between them, although sometimes dinitrogen tetroxide can react by heterolytic fission to nitrosonium and nitrate in a medium with high dielectric constant.
Nitrogen dioxide is an acrid, corrosive brown gas. Both compounds may be easily prepared by decomposing a dry metal nitrate. Both react with water to form nitric acid.
Dinitrogen tetroxide is very useful for the preparation of anhydrous metal nitrates and nitrato complexes, and it became the storable oxidiser of choice for many rockets in both the United States and USSR by the late s.
This is because it is a hypergolic propellant in combination with a hydrazine -based rocket fuel and can be easily stored since it is liquid at room temperature.
The thermally unstable and very reactive dinitrogen pentoxide N 2 O 5 is the anhydride of nitric acid , and can be made from it by dehydration with phosphorus pentoxide.
It is of interest for the preparation of explosives. Hydration to nitric acid comes readily, as does analogous reaction with hydrogen peroxide giving peroxonitric acid HOONO 2.
It is a violent oxidising agent. Gaseous dinitrogen pentoxide decomposes as follows: . Many nitrogen oxoacids are known, though most of them are unstable as pure compounds and are known only as aqueous solution or as salts.
They are an intermediate step in the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite, which occurs in the nitrogen cycle. Hyponitrite can act as a bridging or chelating bidentate ligand.
It is a weak acid with p K a 3. They may be titrimetrically analysed by their oxidation to nitrate by permanganate.
They are readily reduced to nitrous oxide and nitric oxide by sulfur dioxide , to hyponitrous acid with tin II , and to ammonia with hydrogen sulfide.
It is also used to synthesise hydroxylamine and to diazotise primary aromatic amines as follows: . Nitrite is also a common ligand that can coordinate in five ways.
The most common are nitro bonded from the nitrogen and nitrito bonded from an oxygen. Nitro-nitrito isomerism is common, where the nitrito form is usually less stable.
Nitric acid HNO 3 is by far the most important and the most stable of the nitrogen oxoacids. It is one of the three most used acids the other two being sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid and was first discovered by the alchemists in the 13th century.
It is made by catalytic oxidation of ammonia to nitric oxide, which is oxidised to nitrogen dioxide, and then dissolved in water to give concentrated nitric acid.
In the United States of America , over seven million tonnes of nitric acid are produced every year, most of which is used for nitrate production for fertilisers and explosives, among other uses.
Anhydrous nitric acid may be made by distilling concentrated nitric acid with phosphorus pentoxide at low pressure in glass apparatus in the dark.
It can only be made in the solid state, because upon melting it spontaneously decomposes to nitrogen dioxide, and liquid nitric acid undergoes self-ionisation to a larger extent than any other covalent liquid as follows: .
It is a strong acid and concentrated solutions are strong oxidising agents, though gold , platinum , rhodium , and iridium are immune to attack. A mixture of concentrated hydrochloric acid and nitric acid, called aqua regia , is still stronger and successfully dissolves gold and platinum, because free chlorine and nitrosyl chloride are formed and chloride anions can form strong complexes.
In concentrated sulfuric acid, nitric acid is protonated to form nitronium , which can act as an electrophile for aromatic nitration: .
Nitrate is also a common ligand with many modes of coordination. These white crystalline salts are very sensitive to water vapour and carbon dioxide in the air: .
Despite its limited chemistry, the orthonitrate anion is interesting from a structural point of view due to its regular tetrahedral shape and the short N—O bond lengths, implying significant polar character to the bonding.
Nitrogen is one of the most important elements in organic chemistry. C—N bonds are strongly polarised towards nitrogen.
This may be offset by other factors: for example, amides are not basic because the lone pair is delocalised into a double bond though they may act as acids at very low pH, being protonated at the oxygen , and pyrrole is not acidic because the lone pair is delocalised as part of an aromatic ring.
Nitrogen is the most common pure element in the earth, making up The only important nitrogen minerals are nitre potassium nitrate , saltpetre and sodanitre sodium nitrate , Chilean saltpetre.
However, these have not been an important source of nitrates since the s, when the industrial synthesis of ammonia and nitric acid became common.
Nitrogen compounds constantly interchange between the atmosphere and living organisms. Nitrogen must first be processed, or " fixed ", into a plant-usable form, usually ammonia.
Some nitrogen fixation is done by lightning strikes producing the nitrogen oxides, but most is done by diazotrophic bacteria through enzymes known as nitrogenases although today industrial nitrogen fixation to ammonia is also significant.
When the ammonia is taken up by plants, it is used to synthesise proteins. These plants are then digested by animals who use the nitrogen compounds to synthesise their own proteins and excrete nitrogen—bearing waste.
Finally, these organisms die and decompose, undergoing bacterial and environmental oxidation and denitrification , returning free dinitrogen to the atmosphere.
Industrial nitrogen fixation by the Haber process is mostly used as fertiliser, although excess nitrogen—bearing waste, when leached, leads to eutrophication of freshwater and the creation of marine dead zones , as nitrogen-driven bacterial growth depletes water oxygen to the point that all higher organisms die.
Furthermore, nitrous oxide, which is produced during denitrification, attacks the atmospheric ozone layer.
Many saltwater fish manufacture large amounts of trimethylamine oxide to protect them from the high osmotic effects of their environment; conversion of this compound to dimethylamine is responsible for the early odour in unfresh saltwater fish.
Nitric oxide's rapid reaction with water in animals results in production of its metabolite nitrite. Animal metabolism of nitrogen in proteins, in general, results in excretion of urea , while animal metabolism of nucleic acids results in excretion of urea and uric acid.
The characteristic odour of animal flesh decay is caused by the creation of long-chain, nitrogen-containing amines , such as putrescine and cadaverine , which are breakdown products of the amino acids ornithine and lysine , respectively, in decaying proteins.
Nitrogen gas is an industrial gas produced by the fractional distillation of liquid air , or by mechanical means using gaseous air pressurised reverse osmosis membrane or pressure swing adsorption.
Nitrogen gas generators using membranes or pressure swing adsorption PSA are typically more cost and energy efficient than bulk delivered nitrogen.
When supplied compressed in cylinders it is often called OFN oxygen-free nitrogen. In a chemical laboratory, it is prepared by treating an aqueous solution of ammonium chloride with sodium nitrite.
The impurities can be removed by passing the gas through aqueous sulfuric acid containing potassium dichromate.
The applications of nitrogen compounds are naturally extremely widely varied due to the huge size of this class: hence, only applications of pure nitrogen itself will be considered here.
Two-thirds of nitrogen produced by industry is sold as the gas and the remaining one-third as the liquid.
The gas is mostly used as an inert atmosphere whenever the oxygen in the air would pose a fire, explosion, or oxidising hazard. Some examples include: .
Nitrogen is commonly used during sample preparation in chemical analysis. It is used to concentrate and reduce the volume of liquid samples.
Directing a pressurised stream of nitrogen gas perpendicular to the surface of the liquid causes the solvent to evaporate while leaving the solute s and un-evaporated solvent behind.
Nitrogen can be used as a replacement, or in combination with, carbon dioxide to pressurise kegs of some beers , particularly stouts and British ales , due to the smaller bubbles it produces, which makes the dispensed beer smoother and headier.
Nitrogen must be kept at higher pressure than CO 2 , making N 2 tanks heavier and more expensive. Liquid nitrogen is a cryogenic liquid.
When insulated in proper containers such as Dewar flasks , it can be transported without much evaporative loss.
Like dry ice , the main use of liquid nitrogen is as a refrigerant. Among other things, it is used in the cryopreservation of blood, reproductive cells sperm and egg , and other biological samples and materials.
It is used in the clinical setting in cryotherapy to remove cysts and warts on the skin. It has also been used to cool central processing units and other devices in computers that are overclocked , and that produce more heat than during normal operation.
Because of its low cost, liquid nitrogen is also often used when such low temperatures are not strictly necessary, such as refrigeration of food, freeze-branding livestock, freezing pipes to halt flow when valves are not present, and consolidating unstable soil by freezing whenever excavation is going on underneath.
Liquid nitrogen is extensively used in vacuum pump systems. Although nitrogen is non-toxic, when released into an enclosed space it can displace oxygen, and therefore presents an asphyxiation hazard.
This may happen with few warning symptoms, since the human carotid body is a relatively poor and slow low-oxygen hypoxia sensing system.
Nitrogen dissolves in the blood and body fats. Rapid decompression as when divers ascend too quickly or astronauts decompress too quickly from cabin pressure to spacesuit pressure can lead to a potentially fatal condition called decompression sickness formerly known as caisson sickness or the bends , when nitrogen bubbles form in the bloodstream, nerves, joints, and other sensitive or vital areas.
As a cryogenic liquid, liquid nitrogen can be dangerous by causing cold burns on contact, although the Leidenfrost effect provides protection for very short exposure about one second.
For example, in , a young woman in England had to have her stomach removed after ingesting a cocktail made with liquid nitrogen.
As a result of the subsequent pressure buildup, the tank failed catastrophically. The force of the explosion was sufficient to propel the tank through the ceiling immediately above it, shatter a reinforced concrete beam immediately below it, and blow the walls of the laboratory 0.
Liquid nitrogen readily evaporates to form gaseous nitrogen, and hence the precautions associated with gaseous nitrogen also apply to liquid nitrogen.
Vessels containing liquid nitrogen can condense oxygen from air. Oxygen deficiency monitors are used to measure levels of oxygen in confined spaces and any place where nitrogen gas or liquid are stored or used.
In the event of a nitrogen leak, and a decrease in oxygen to a pre-set alarm level, an oxygen deficiency monitor can be programmed to set off audible and visual alarms, thereby providing notification of the possible impending danger.
Most commonly the oxygen range to alert personal is when oxygen levels get below OSHA specifies that a hazardous atmosphere may include one where the oxygen concentration is below From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 3 August Chemical element with atomic number 7. Main article: Isotopes of nitrogen.
Main article: Dinitrogen complex. Main article: Nitrogen oxide. See also: Nitrogen cycle. Play media. The Engineering Toolbox. Retrieved 27 January